主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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O 十一,不列颠时代1 1 万年看客 字12533 2020-03-20 06:20:34
O 不列颠时代2 1 万年看客 字13710 2020-03-20 06:21:50
O 拉格比好象是橄榄球嘛 1 桥上 字0 2020-03-21 00:33:44
O 不列颠时代3 2 万年看客 字14253 2020-03-25 04:36:50
O 不列颠时代4 万年看客 字13108 2020-03-25 04:40:17
O 不列颠时代5 3 万年看客 字14359 2020-03-27 05:09:38
O 橄榄球起源于拉格比城 4 燕人 字15 2020-03-27 05:59:09
O 谢了,和那个拉格比公学有关吗? 桥上 字0 2020-03-27 07:16:12
O 传说是该校一个学生首创 4 燕人 字418 2020-03-27 07:31:57
O 待认可未通过。偏要看 耗株钱:1
O 不列颠时代6 1 万年看客 字19082 2020-05-17 22:23:47
2020-03-20 06:20:34
4494688 复 4344063
万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`1`25462`185498`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
十一,不列颠时代1 1

如果说历史上有任何一个时代可以称作“英国时代”,那么必然就是十九世纪或者说维多利亚时代——人们惯于采用在这一时期统治英国的高寿女王的名字来指代这一时期。在一段短暂的时间里,英国成为了全球第一的强权国家。凭借全世界第一场工业革命的先发优势,英国打造了一个幅员辽阔财富无数的帝国。皇家海军成为了全世界最可畏的军事力量。因此军旅与军事题材诗歌、主流正能量诗歌以及痴迷于物质财富带来的全新社会阶级的诗歌理所当然地在这一时期大行其道。但是另一方面,维多利亚时期的诗人们也在竭力应对着令人不安的全新理念,从基于自然选择的达尔文进化论到不断传播开来的无神论再到新兴的社会主义教条等等。这一时期的大部分诗歌绝非洋洋自得的夸口文字,而是走上了反躬自省自我批评的路线。诗人们热切地复兴了宗教信仰,歌颂了家庭生活,还对更广大的世界产生了越来越浓厚的兴趣。

维多利亚时代的诗歌就像维多利亚时代的建筑一样,好似一座多种文化意象拼贴而成的精灵城市。从丁尼生的《国王之歌》到勃朗宁的威尼斯与佛罗伦萨背景再到爱德华.菲兹杰拉德的波斯风情。此外这也是异域主义与东方主义大行其道的时代。以上这些内容大抵无助于我们试图通过诗歌理解本时代英国人的尝试。但是就像维多利亚时代的建筑一样,这些诗歌当中也充溢着令人着迷的活力与多样性。有些诗歌好比单一色调的宫殿,另一些则好比环绕宫殿的民宅;有些诗歌顶着十四世纪的塔尖,另一些则装饰着从意大利运河区挪用过来的花窗。仔细监视一番就会发现,看似招摇作态的维多利亚诗歌往往英国气质浓厚并且紧跟时代。

首先介绍一位菲利西娅.赫门兹。她的出身家族在很多方面都可以被视为维多利亚时代新英国的缩影。她父亲是兰开夏郡的酒类进口商,她的一位兄弟参军入伍并立下了显赫战功,另一个兄弟当上了爱尔兰警察总局局长,第三个兄弟在加拿大当了高官。她本人嫁给了一位爱尔兰军官,但是这段婚姻并未维持很久。她的第一首诗作献给了威尔士亲王,尽管如此雪莱依然十分仰慕她。她过世之后,华兹华斯为她撰写了悼文。她最出名的作品是《卡萨比安卡》(Casabianca),显然出自一位帝国国运上升时期的爱国女青年之手:

The boy stood on the burning deck

Whence all but he had fled;

The flame that lit the battle's wreck

Shone round him o'er the dead.

少年挺立在燃烧的甲板,

此时其他人都已放弃。

烧毁了战舰的熊熊火焰,

照亮了他和一片尸体。

Yet beautiful and bright he stood,

As born to rule the storm;

A creature of heroic blood,

A proud, though child-like form.

然而他依然挺立,面容清秀俊朗,

似乎生来就要统御风暴;

英雄的鲜血在他体内流淌,

尽管尚未成年,却依然满怀骄傲。

The flames rolled on–he would not go

Without his Father's word;

That father, faint in death below,

His voice no longer heard.

烈焰滚滚,他却不肯抛弃职分,

除非得到父亲的命令。

甲板以下倒卧着他的父亲,

早已牺牲,无法将他的呼唤回应。

He called aloud–'say, Father, say

If yet my task is done?'

He knew not that the chieftain lay

Unconscious of his son.

“下令啊,父亲?”他高声呼喊,

“我的任务是否已经完成?”

他不知道自己的首长已经瘫软,

听不见儿子的阵阵呼声。

'Speak, father!' once again he cried,

'If I may yet be gone!'

And but the booming shots replied,

And fast the flames rolled on.

“说话呀,父亲!”他带着哭腔喊道,

“我现在能不能撤离前线!”

回应他的只有隆隆的殉爆,

以及吞噬一切的熊熊烈焰。

Upon his brow he felt their breath,

And in his waving hair,

And looked from that lone post of death

In still yet brave despair.

他能感到烈火的阵阵呼气,

喷在他的眉毛与头发上;

他孤独地驻守在必死之地

一动不动,满脸勇敢的绝望。

And shouted but once more aloud,

'My father! must I stay?'

While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud,

The wreathing fires made way.

最后一声呼喊,比刚才嗓门更高,

“爸爸!难道我还不能撤走?”

在他背后,沿着船帆向上燃烧,

烈火缓缓张开了血盆大口。

They wrapt the ship in splendour wild,

They caught the flag on high,

And streamed above the gallant child,

Like banners in the sky.

火光灿烂,将整艘战船点亮,

终于攫住了最高处的旗帜,

招摇在英勇少年的头上,

恰似半空中的横幅烈炽。

There came a burst of thunder sound–

The boy–oh! where was he?

Ask of the winds that far around

With fragments strewed the sea!

突然一声雷鸣般的巨响——

那孩子呢?可曾有人看见?

唯有狂风呼啸吹向远方,

破碎的残骸撒满了海面!

With mast, and helm, and pennon fair,

That well had borne their part–

But the noblest thing which perished there

Was that young faithful heart.

桅杆,舵轮,与燕尾旗高高飘荡

它们全都完成了自己的使命——

但要说到何等牺牲最为高尚,

唯有这颗年轻的心最为坚定。

赫门兹的诗歌洋溢着维多利亚时代的高昂爱国主义。不幸的是,这一点也让她的作品在二十世纪沦为了无情恶搞的靶子。她的《堂皇的英格兰之家》(The Stately Homes of England)一诗自从被喜剧演员诺尔.考沃德恶搞之后就再没能恢复元气。先来看看她的原诗:

THE STATELY Homes of England,

How beautiful they stand!

Amidst their tall ancestral trees,

O’er all the pleasant land;

The deer across their greensward bound

Through shade and sunny gleam,

And the swan glides past them with the sound

Of some rejoicing stream.

堂皇的英格兰之家!

他们多么美丽!

有多少参天古树

覆盖这片优美土地!

鹿群啃食着茵茵绿草,

在斑驳树荫下徜徉,

天鹅在水面优美舞蹈,

欢乐的河流源远流长。

The merry Homes of England!

Around their hearths by night,

What gladsome looks of household love

Meet in the ruddy light.

There woman’s voice flows forth in song,

Or childish tale is told;

Or lips move tunefully along

Some glorious page of old.

欢乐的英格兰之家!

夜晚在炉旁围坐,

其乐融融的一家人,

端详着炉火闪烁。

……

The cottage Homes of England!

By thousands on her plains,

They are smiling o’er the silvery brooks,

And round the hamlet-fanes.

Through glowing orchards forth they peep,

Each from its nook of leaves;

And fearless there the lowly sleep,

As the bird beneath their eaves.

英格兰的农舍之家!

成百上千在平原坐落,

面朝粼粼溪流微笑,

组成大大小小的村落。

透过闪亮的果园窥探,

每座小屋都被层层树叶遮蔽;

无惧的人们在树下安眠,

恰似鸟儿在屋檐下休憩。

这几句诗略微肉麻了一点,但是总体而言没毛病是吧?下面是考沃德的恶搞版本:

The Stately Homes of England,

How beautiful they stand,

To prove the upper classes

Have still the upper hand;

Though the fact that they have to be rebuilt

And frequently mortgaged to the hilt

Is inclined to take the gilt

Off the gingerbread,

And certainly damps the fun

Of the eldest son-

But still we won't be beaten,

We'll scrimp and scrape and save,

The playing fields of Eton

Have made us frightfully brave。

堂皇的英格兰之家!

他们多么美丽!

为了证明掌大权的

依然是上层阶级!

他们经常被扒了重建,

还被拿来抵押贷款,

丁点不剩抹净吃干,

姜饼人的糖霜脸。

名门望族的长子,

如今少了乐子。

但我们不肯认输平躺,

哪怕勒紧裤腰活受罪,

伊顿公学的操场,

练就我们的勇猛无畏。

莫非赫门兹就只有这点本事不成?幸运的是并非如此,尽管她的诗才直到最近才刚刚得到人们的进一步认识。赫门兹可算是最早的一批女权主义诗人,或者说她至少是一位反复采用女性受压迫并且难以发声这一题材的诗人。以下是她的长诗《精神的回归》(A Spirit Returns)的开头:

Thy voice prevails - dear friend, my gentle friend!

This long-shut heart for thee shall be unsealed,

And though thy soft eye mournfully will bend

Over the troubled stream, yet once revealed

Shall its freed waters flow; then rocks must close

For evermore, above their dark repose.

这声音胜利了——亲爱的朋友,我温柔的友人!

我将要为你打开这长久关闭的心门,

尽管你那柔和又伤感的视线

将会在激流上弯成一条曲线

一旦揭露,一道道水流就会自由的流淌,

然后巨石将在黑暗水源的头顶永远合上。

自杀一直都是赫门兹作品的隐藏基调。这一倾向与燃烧甲板上与战船共存亡的少年所体现的干脆道德主义完全背道而驰。例如《萨芙的最后之歌》(The Last Song of Sappho)就描写了古希腊女诗人萨芙蹈海自尽之前的场景:

SOUND on, thou dark unslumbering sea!

My dirge is in thy moan;

My spirit finds response in thee,

To its own ceaseless cry–'Alone, alone !'

继续作响吧,你这黑暗的大海不肯宁静!

我的挽歌就是你的啜泣;

你将我的精神回应,

用你那无尽的哭喊——“孤寂,孤寂!”

Yet send me back one other word,

Ye tones that never cease !

Oh ! let your secret caves be stirr'd,

And say, dark waters! will ye give me peace?

你可敢换个字眼将我回复,

你的声调永远不停!

哦!若是搅动了你那神秘的洞府,

黑暗之水啊!你可愿容我安宁?

Away! my weary soul hath sought

In vain one echoing sigh,

One answer to consuming thought

In human hearts–and will the wave reply ?

去吧,我疲惫的灵魂一直在寻觅

应和的叹息声,但总是徒劳枉然,

我想找一个答案用来消耗思绪

在人心当中——海浪可愿与我相谈?

Sound on, thou dark, unslumbering sea!

Sound in thy scorn and pride !

I ask not, alien world, from thee,

What my own kindred earth hath still denied.

继续作响吧,你这黑暗的大海不肯安眠!

这声音是你的骄傲与轻蔑!

陌生的世界,我无意求你垂怜,

毕竟我的地上亲属也不肯将我关切。

And yet I loved that earth so well,

With all its lovely things!

–Was it for this the death-wind fell

On my rich lyre, and quench'd its living strings?

然而我对大地爱得深沉,

它是那么多可爱生灵的家园!

——莫非因此死亡之风才会降临

掀翻我的琴,打湿生命的琴弦?

——Let them lie silent at my feet !

Since broken even as they,

The heart whose music made them sweet,

Hath pour'd on desert-sands its wealth away.

让它们在我脚下安静休憩!

就算像它们这样残破,

也能因为心中的音乐变得甜蜜,

这颗心将它的财富倾倒在沙漠。

Yet glory's light hath touch'd my name,

The laurel-wreath is mine–

–With a lone heart, a weary frame–

O restless deep ! I come to make them thine !

但是荣耀的光明触碰了我的姓名,

桂叶的花冠属于我——

以及孤独的心,憔悴的体型——

哦无尽的深渊!请包容这一切的我!

Give to that crown, that burning crown,

Place in thy darkest hold!

Bury my anguish, my renown,

With hidden wrecks, lost gems, and wasted gold.

我将这一切都向燃烧的皇冠献上,

安置在你最黑暗的坚城里!

将我的痛苦与光荣全部埋葬

与隐秘的船骸、失落的金珠摆在一起

Thou sea-bird on the billow's crest,

Thou hast thy love, thy home;

They wait thee in the quiet nest,

And I, the unsought, unwatch'd-for–I too come!

你们这些海鸟在浪头上栖息,

你们享有大海的爱,分享大海的家;

它们在安稳的鸟巢里等你,

无人寻觅,无人看护的我——我也来啦!

I, with this winged nature fraught,

These visions wildly free,

This boundless love, this fiery thought–

Alone I come–oh ! give me peace, dark sea!

我满目所见都是这些生灵张开双翼,

无拘无束的自由风采,

这无尽的爱,这烈火一般的思绪——

我来了——哦!请给我安宁吧,黑暗的大海!


2020-03-20 06:20:34
2020-03-20 06:21:50
4494689 复 4344063
万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`1`25462`185498`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代2 1

菲利西娅.赫门兹一方面全心接受了维多利亚时代的宗教与敌国热情,另一方面又抱有私密的怀疑主义。这一特点在另一位更伟大的诗人身上也有体现。此人还是她的兰开夏郡同乡。亚瑟.休.克拉夫是著名的拉格比公学的学生,这座学校不仅以基督教作为立校之本,而且洋溢着雄赳赳的气质。后来他还在一段时间里成为了热情的高派教会成员。他最出名的诗作《不要说奋斗是徒劳》(Say not the Struggle nought Availeth)慷慨激昂地号召士兵们坚持斗争,还在更广泛的层面上批驳了失败主义。这首诗措辞巧妙,行文紧凑干脆,足以与吉卜林相媲美。可见并非每一篇体训教官拿来给受训人员打气的文字都是假大空话:

Say not the struggle nought availeth,

The labour and the wounds are vain,

The enemy faints not, nor faileth,

And as things have been they remain.

不要说奋斗终是徒劳,

辛劳和创伤白费无功,

敌人尚未力竭,更未被打倒,

事物一切照旧,依然毫无变动。

If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars;

It may be, in yon smoke concealed,

Your comrades chase e'en now the fliers,

And, but for you, possess the field.

倘若希望是虚妄,恐慌则是骗徒,

你可看见远处的硝烟弥漫?

即便在此刻,战友们也在将逃敌驱逐,

若非你拖后腿,早已将敌军阵地攻占。

For while the tired waves, vainly breaking

Seem here no painful inch to gain,

Far back through creeks and inlets making,

Comes silent, flooding in, the main.

疲惫的波浪徒然拍打海滩,

仿佛再努力也无法向前一寸,

可是就在附近的河口与港湾,

大海的满潮已经无声涌进。

And not by eastern windows only,

When daylight comes, comes in the light,

In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,

But westward, look, the land is bright.

每当白昼来到世间,

光芒不仅仅射进东窗,

在正面,太阳攀援多么迟缓,

但向西看吧,遍地洒满霞光!

要想研究维多利亚时代英国国民的精神风貌,克拉夫其人是个很有趣的研究对象。后来他背弃了建制派教会,将精力转向了海外游历。意大利革命期间他游历了罗马与威尼斯。克拉夫是一位受过彻底训练的古典主义者,格律技法出类拔萃。不过他并没有利用这套技艺去一味描写古典题材,而是更关注当代时事。1850年,克拉夫创作了《旅途之恋》(Amours de Voyage)。此前他目睹了短命的罗马共和国如何被前来支援教皇并反对朱塞佩.马志尼以及意大利爱国者们的法军击溃。这首诗是他的最伟大杰作。诗人采用了经典的六音步长诗行格式,刻画了一位有些话痨的主人公克劳德。诗文的表现形式全都是克劳德写给国内友人的信件。克劳德是一位有些缺乏干劲的英国游客,他就像绝大多数维多利亚时期的英国人一样出于本能地支持自由派立宪主义。但是国外的政治环境以及外国人的政治热情让他感到很不以为然。克拉夫借助自己笔下的主人公绘声绘色地传达了当时英国人说话的口吻,此外他对细节的捕捉能力也远超一般小说家:

WHAT do the people say, and what does the government do? - you

Ask, and I know not at all. Yet fortune will favour your hopes; and

I, who avoided it all, am fated, it seems, to describe it.

I, who nor meddle nor make in politics, - I, who sincerely

Put not my trust in leagues nor any suffrage by ballot,

Never predicted Parisian milleniums, never beheld a

New Jerusalem coming down dressed like a bride out of heaven

Right on the Place de la Concorde," - I, nevertheless, let me say it,

Could in my soul of souls, this day, with the Gaul at the gates, shed

One true tear for thee, thou poor little Roman republic!

人们说什么?政府又做什么?

——你问我,我问谁去?但是命运将会青睐你的希望;

而对这一切避之不及的我,似乎必须将其描述。

我从未掺和或者操纵过政治——我这人历来真心诚意地

从未信任过任何政治团体或者投票活动

从未预言过新时代的来临,从未见过

新耶路撒冷身着婚纱从天而降*

降落在协和广场上——尽管如此,我还是要

掏心窝子地说一句,高卢人兵临城下的这一天

我要为你流一滴真心泪,可怜的罗马共和国!

*【暗指法国二月革命后的新形势】

What, with the German restored, with Sicily safe to the Bourbon,

Not leave one poor corner for native Italian exertion?

France, it is foully done! and you, my stupid old England, -

You, who a twelve month ago said nations must choose for themselves, you

Could not, of course, interfere, - you now, when a nation has chosen

Pardon this folly! The Times will, of course, have announced the occasion,

Told you the news of today; and although it was slightly in error

When it proclaimed as a fact the Apollo was sold to a Yankee,

You may believe when it tells you the French are at Civita Vecchia.

什么?德国已经复辟,西西里也被波旁家吞下,

难道就不能为意大利人留下一个自主的偏僻角落?

法国,瞧你干的好事!还有你,我那愚蠢的英格兰——

你在十二个月之前还说国家命运应当自决,

你当然不能干预——可是现在呢?这个国家已经做出了选择!

原谅这一愚行吧!《泰晤士报》肯定已经报道了这一事件,

向你告知了今天的新闻,尽管该报此前犯过小错,

曾经信誓旦旦地声称某个美国人买下了太阳,

但你不妨相信该报关于法军打到了奇维塔韦基亚的报道。

意大利共和派的热情一时间裹挟了克劳德。就像许多英国人一样,他越是目击战争就越觉得英国应该出手干预。但是现在已经太迟了。话说回来,如果真要轮到他拿出勇气,他能拿出多少呢?没多少:

NOW supposing the French or the Neapolitan soldier

Should by some evil chance come exploring the Maison Serny,

(Where the family English are all to assemble for safety,)

Am I prepared to lay down my life for the British female?

Really, who knows? One has bowed and talked, till, little by little,

All the natural heat has escaped of the chivalrous spirit.

Oh, one conformed, of course; but one doesn't die for good manners,

Stab or shoot, or be shot, by way of a graceful attention.

假设法国兵或者来自尼泊尔的佣兵

因为邪恶的机会,闯进了瑟尼大饭店,

(英国侨民家属为了安全都在那里集合)

我是否具有为了保护英国女性而捐躯的觉悟?

这种事谁知道呢?我大概会站出来斡旋一会儿,直到

骑士精神的勇气在我心里逐渐消失殆尽。

当然,做人要老实规矩;但是讲风度并不值得搭上性命,

无论是被刀捅死还是被枪打死,只为赢得佳人一顾。

现在真正的战斗开始了,但是当地人的日常生活不知怎的还在继续。攥紧导游指南的克劳德详细描绘了此时的超现实氛围。通过这段文字可以看出他具有天生的采访报道天赋。

YES, we are fighting at last, it appears. This morning, as usual,

Murray, as usual, in hand, I enter the Caffe Nuovo;

Seating myself with a sense as it were of a change in the weather,

Not understanding, however, but thinking mostly of Murray,

And, for to day is their day, of the Campidoglio Marbles,

Caffe-latte! I call to the waiter--and Non c'e latte,

This is the answer he makes me, and this the sign of a battle.

So I sit; and truly they seem to think any one else more

Worthy than me of attention. I wait for my milkless nero,

Free to observe undistracted all sorts and sizes of persons,

Blending civilian and soldier in strangest costume, coming in, and

Gulping in hottest haste, still standing, their coffee, -withdrawing

Eagerly, jangling a sword on the steps, or jogging a musket

Slung to the shoulder behind. They are fewer, moreover, than usual,

Much, and silenter far; and so I begin to imagine

Something is really afloat. Ere I leave, the Caffe is empty,

Empty too the streets, in all its length the Corso

Empty, and empty I see to my right and my left the Condotti.

是的,我们似乎终于开战了。今天早晨,像往常一样,

我像往常一样手拿《莫里导游手册》,走进了诺沃咖啡馆;

坐下之后总感觉天气变了,

当时我还没明白过来,心里还在琢磨《手册》上的内容,

因为今天这日子特别,卡比托利欧博物馆要展览一批古玩,

来杯拿铁!——我对侍者喊道——拿铁没了!

这是他的回答,这句话是即将打仗的信号。

我干坐在那里,他们似乎觉得别人全都

比我更值得关注。我叫的不加奶黑咖啡迟迟不来,

于是我趁机专心打量起了形形色色的其他顾客们,

平民与军人一起混杂着走进来,穿着最奇怪的衣服,

来不及坐下就急不可待地将咖啡牛饮一空——

然后又急匆匆冲出门去,腰间挎着剑,肩膀后面

斜挂着毛瑟枪。此外他们的人数比平时更少,

也比平时安静了许多,于是我不禁觉得

这回真出事了。我离开之前,咖啡馆已经没人了,

街上也没人了,科索大街从头到尾

空空荡荡,康多蒂大街的左右两边也见不着人……

这是一首精彩的长诗,笔者建议读者们阅读全篇。克拉夫本人是一位纠结的自由派,日后还会成为弗洛伦斯.南丁格尔的密切合作伙伴。维多利亚时代很看重宗教信仰,宗教与不可知论以及各种怀疑之间的冲突也很激烈。克拉夫的诗歌同样反映了这一方面。下面这首《十诫新编》(The Latest Decalogue)淋漓尽致地讲解了维多利亚时代英国人对待宗教了模棱两可态度:

THOU shalt have one God only; who

Would be at the expense of two?

No graven images may be

Worshipped, except the currency.

Swear not at all; for, for thy curse

Thine enemy is none the worse.

At church on Sunday to attend

Will serve to keep the world thy friend.

Honor thy parents; that is, all

From whom advancement may befall.

Thou shalt not kill; but need’st not strive

Officiously to keep alive.

Do not adultery commit;

Advantage rarely comes of it.

Thou shalt not steal; an empty feat,

When it’s so lucrative to cheat.

Bear not false witness; let the lie

Have time on its own wings to fly.

Thou shalt not covet, but tradition

Approves all forms of competition.

你只能崇拜一个神;

拜两个的代价高得吓人。

不能崇拜任何造像,

除非印刷在钞票上。

不可诅咒起誓将人辱骂,

敌人不会因此过得更差。

周日要参与教会活动,

唯此才能得到他人尊重。

要孝敬父母,因为归根结底,

他们的家产早晚都要归你。

你不可杀人,但也不必费力

给半死之人假惺惺吊一口气。

通奸行径万万不可,

因为肯定没好结果

你不可盗窃,这倒无所谓,

撒谎骗人本来就更有油水。

不可作假见证,只需袖手旁观,

给谎言留出满天飞舞的时间。

不可贪恋他人财物,但是要谨记,

我们的传统将一切竞争形式鼓励。

光看这首诗,读者们很容易一位诗人看不起一切宗教信仰,但是情况并非如此。维多利亚时代的英国人在拿不定主意的时候最有趣,一旦拿定主意反而无趣了。请看《上帝并不存在》(There Is No God):

"There is no God," the wicked saith,

"And truly it's a blessing,

For what He might have done with us

It's better only guessing."

“上帝并不存在,”恶人这样说,

“这一点实在喜人,

不然我们实在不敢猜测

祂打算怎样收拾我们。”

"There is no God," a youngster thinks,

"or really, if there may be,

He surely did not mean a man

Always to be a baby."

“上帝并不存在,”年轻人这样想,

“退一步说,就算祂当真存在,

祂也肯定不希望人类

永远处于童稚状态。”

"There is no God, or if there is,"

The tradesman thinks, "'twere funny

If He should take it ill in me

To make a little money."

“上帝并不存在,”商人这样想,

“不过就算存在也无所谓,

我只想赚两个小钱而已,

祂老人家想必不会反对。”

"Whether there be," the rich man says,

"It matters very little,

For I and mine, thank somebody,

Are not in want of victual."

“不管有没有上帝,”富人说,

“其实都差不了太多,

鄙人一家谢天谢地,

从来都不缺吃少喝。”

Some others, also, to themselves,

Who scarce so much as doubt it,

Think there is none, when they are well,

And do not think about it.

还有其他人,在他们心里

几乎没有产生过怀疑,

平时他们想当然地认为上帝

并不存在,不去想这个问题。

But country folks who live beneath

The shadow of the steeple;

The parson and the parson's wife,

And mostly married people;

但是要说起那些乡下居民

在教堂尖顶的阴影里居住;

教区牧师与他的妻子,

还有大多数已婚夫妇。

Youths green and happy in first love,

So thankful for illusion;

And men caught out in what the world

Calls guilt, in first confusion;

陷入初恋的青葱少年

真心感谢这层幻象;

还有人因为一时糊涂

被人世间将罪名加上;

And almost everyone when age,

Disease, or sorrows strike him,

Inclines to think there is a God,

Or something very like Him.

以及几乎所有人,当他们

遭受衰老、悲恸与病恙,

都倾向于相信上帝确实存在,

至少也有某种存在与祂相像。


最后于2020-03-23 02:12:29改,共1次;
2020-03-20 06:21:50
4495151 复 4494689
桥上
拉格比好象是橄榄球嘛 1

2020-03-21 00:33:44
2020-03-25 04:36:50
4497341 复 4344063
万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`1`25462`185498`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代3 2

在本书此前涉及的各个世纪里,绝大多数英国人似乎都是基督教信徒。或许这只是社会控制的手段,或许怀疑论者、不可知论者乃至无神论者的数量从来都不少,但是显然他们一直将自己的想法藏在心里。基督教信仰是英国文化的绝对核心,公然出柜的无神论者少之又少,笔者只能想起来克里斯托弗.马洛以及一段时间里的安德鲁.马维尔。但是现在科学在地理与生物领域的新发现正在颠覆英国人对于地球历史、地球起源以及人类特殊地位的固有看法——换句话说上帝与信仰都遭到了质疑。千百万爱思考的英国人就此遭受了重创。马修.阿诺德是教育过克拉夫的拉格比公学创始人的儿子,他笔下有一首诗歌十分到位地体现了这一思潮。阿诺德的文笔机智、简练而又古典,不过丝毫打动不了笔者,唯独下面这首名至实归的佳作《多佛尔海滩》(Dover Beach)是个例外。诗人通过这部作品抒发了对于信仰在唯物主义时代信仰逐渐消失的悲恸:

The sea is calm tonight.

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the straits; on the French coast the light

Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!

Only, from the long line of spray

Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,

Listen! you hear the grating roar

Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.

今夜大海平静,

潮水正满,月色朗朗,

临照海峡,——法国海岸上

微光渐隐,而英国的峭壁高竖,

在宁静的海湾里显出巨大模糊的身影。

到窗边来吧,晚风多么甜!

可是你听!月光漂白了的陆地

与大海相接处,那一条长长的浪花线

传来磨牙般的喧声,

这是海浪卷走卵石,然后转回头来,

又把它们抛到高高的海滩之上,

涌起,停息,再重新涌起,

以缓慢而颤动的节拍

送来永恒的悲哀的音响。

Sophocles long ago

Heard it on the ?gean, and it brought

Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow

Of human misery; we

Find also in the sound a thought,

Hearing it by this distant northern sea.

索福克勒斯很久以前

在爱琴海边听过这喧声,

在他心中引起了人类苦难的

浊浪滚滚的潮汐;

我们在此遥远的北海边聆听,

也在此声中听到了深意。

The Sea of Faith

Was once, too, at the full, and round earth’s shore

Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.

But now I only hear

Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,

Retreating, to the breath

Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear

And naked shingles of the world.

信仰之海

也曾有过满潮,像一根灿烂的腰带,

把全球的海岸围绕。

但如今我只听得

它那忧伤的退潮的咆哮久久不息,

它退向夜风的呼吸,

退过世界广阔阴沉的边界,

只留下一滩光秃秃的卵石。

Ah, love, let us be true

To one another! for the world, which seems

To lie before us like a land of dreams,

So various, so beautiful, so new,

Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,

Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;

And we are here as on a darkling plain

Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,

Where ignorant armies clash by night.

啊,爱人,愿我们

彼此真诚!因为世界虽然

展开在我们面前如梦幻的国度,

那么多彩、美丽而新鲜,

实际上却没有欢乐,没有爱和光明,

没有肯定,没有和平,没有对痛苦的救助;

我们犹如处在黑暗的旷野,

斗争和逃跑构成一片混乱与惊怖,

无知的军队在黑夜中互相冲突。【飞白译】

维多利亚时代英国人的世界观受到了许多体制的塑造,包括君主制、国教会以及大英帝国等等。但是这其中最重要的体制还要数婚姻。婚姻意味着安全与体面,在人生赢家与不圆满的存在之间画下了分界线。皈依了罗马天主教会的考文垂.帕特摩尔是维多利亚时代最杰出的歌颂婚姻的诗人。帕特摩尔生在埃塞克斯,早年是一位画家,后来捣鼓了一阵子科学研究,最后才转向诗歌。由于他家里没钱,不得不耗费了很多年在大英博物馆做一名低级助理员。他的人生转折点出现在1847年,这一年他迎娶了一位艾米丽.安德鲁斯。他的诗歌并未一炮打响,而且日后他还要再婚两次。但是他笔下颂扬婚姻的长篇叙事诗《家中的天使》(The Angel in the House)最终受到了广泛欢迎。我们不妨将这首长诗视作一篇易于阅读的轻小说,总体而言笔调轻快,但是同时又传达了强烈的反女权信息,因此被二十世纪的知识分子们批判得狗血淋头。只需看一看以下选段就能理解本诗的主旨:

Man must be pleased; but him to please

Is woman's pleasure; down the gulf

Of his condoled necessities

She casts her best, she flings herself.

How often flings for nought, and yokes

Her heart to an icicle or whim,

Whose each impatient word provokes

Another, not from her, but him;

While she, too gentle even to force

His penitence by kind replies,

Waits by, expecting his remorse,

With pardon in her pitying eyes;

And if he once, by shame oppress'd,

A comfortable word confers,

She leans and weeps against his breast,

And seems to think the sin was hers;

男人必须被取悦,而取悦他

则是女人的愉悦;沿着他那被安抚

的必需之物的深渊向下

她投下了自己的精华,飞身将深渊填补。

飞身一跃往往只为一场空,

恣意而为的冰凌将她的心禁锢,

每一句不耐烦的话语都会挑动

另一句,并非来自她,而是由他说出。

她如此温柔,不肯将他强迫,

不肯用温和的回应迫使他悔悟

于是等在一边,期待他改过,

怜悯的眼神里充满了宽恕。

一旦他,受到羞耻新的逼迫,

说了几句贴心的话语,

她就会倚靠在他胸口,两眼泪落,

似乎认为过失都在自己。

这段诗文当中的女性形象可以说很不女权了。帕特摩尔塑造的“屈服的妻子”形象在多年以后的世代看来实在无法忍受,但却准确地体现了维多利亚时代对于理想婚姻关系的看法——这部诗作在当时极其畅销,一次能卖掉一马车。部分原因当然在于帕特摩尔传达了对于夫妻之爱的迫切、真诚且几乎有些天真的看法。他一方面要求——或者说期望——妻子能够像天使那样制约丈夫的野蛮,另一方面也留下了不少证据表明他很看好谦和互让的婚姻幸福。下面这首《离别》(Departure)描述了一个寻常日子里夫妻告别的场景:

IT was not like your great and gracious ways!

Do you, that have naught other to lament,

Never, my Love, repent

Of how, that July afternoon,

You went,

With sudden, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

Upon your journey of so many days

Without a single kiss, or a good-bye?

I knew, indeed, that you were parting soon;

And so we sate, within the low sun's rays,

You whispering to me, for your voice was weak,

Your harrowing praise.

Well, it was well

To hear you such things speak,

And I could tell

What made your eyes a growing gloom of love,

As a warm South-wind sombres a March grove.

And it was like your great and gracious ways

To turn your talk on daily things, my Dear,

Lifting the luminous, pathetic lash

To let the laughter flash,

Whilst I drew near,

Because you spoke so low that I could scarcely hear.

But all at once to leave me at the last,

More at the wonder than the loss aghast,

With huddled, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

And go your journey of all days

With not one kiss, or a good-bye,

And the only loveless look the look with which you pass'd:

'Twas all unlike your great and gracious ways.

这可不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

你,明明不必为其他人伤心,

我的爱人,莫非你从未悔过,

你居然,在七月的那个下午

突然就离开

伴随着突兀的,听不清的言语

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

其实,我也知道,你很快就要动身

于是我们坐下,在夕阳余晖当中,

你对我耳语道——因为你的声音微弱

——你那焦虑的赞美。

好吧,能听到

你说出这些话语,确实挺好。

我也知道

是什么让你的双眼放出爱之光辉,

恰似温暖的南风抚慰了三月的果园。

这才像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度,

谈一点日常小事,我的爱人,

升起你的机关,美好而又惹人怜爱

释放出你的笑声满怀,

当我靠近你身边,

因为你声音太低,我实在听不见。

但是突然你终于要离开我身边,

我与其说震惊,倒不如说思绪万千,

伴随着局促的,听不清的言语,

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

临走之前仅仅用无爱的眼神向我一瞥:

这实在不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

前拉斐尔派的宗教画家们将帕特摩尔当成了自己人,辛格.萨金特还为他绘制了全身像。罗马天主教则对于他的后半生意义重大。他最著名的短诗《真理至大》(Magna Est Veritas)尽管笔调轻快,但却格外动人,这也是他的一贯风格:

Here, in this little Bay,

Full of tumultuous life and great repose,

Where, twice a day,

The purposeless, glad ocean comes and goes,

Under high cliffs, and far from the huge town,

I sit me down.

For want of me the world's course will not fail:

When all its work is done, the lie shall rot;

The truth is great, and shall prevail,

When none cares whether it prevail or not.

在这里,在这小小的港湾,

熙熙攘攘的生灵在此休憩,

在这里,两次每天,

海水涨落,欢乐而没有目的,

远离城镇,在高崖之下,

我找个地方坐下。

就算少了我,世界的进程也不受扰动:

大功告成之际,谎言必将腐朽;

伟大的真理,必将大获全胜,

届时谁也不会关心它胜利与否。

有一味显而易见的解药能够从根本上化解考文垂.帕特摩尔对于婚姻的推崇,那就是乔治.梅瑞狄斯笔下令人生畏的组诗《现代爱情》(Modern Love)。这套组诗总共包括五十首十四行诗,描写了一场婚姻的解体以及男女主人公各自出轨的经过。诗人本人的婚姻生活也很不圆满。他娶了文坛同侪托马斯.洛夫.皮考克的女儿,后来妻子跟着另一个男人跑了。梅瑞狄斯的小说文笔晦涩,如今没多少人看。但是随着当代人越发熟悉婚姻生活可能带来的苦境,《现代爱情》却变得越发流行起来。帕特摩尔的乐观对应了梅瑞狄斯的绝望;帕特摩尔用水粉上色,梅瑞狄斯则用指甲在画面上划过。以下是组诗的第一首,描写了两个貌合神离的人如何躺在同一张床上相互折磨:

By this he knew she wept with waking eyes:

That, at his hand's light quiver by her head,

The strange low sobs that shook their common bed

Were called into her with a sharp surprise,

And strangled mute, like little gaping snakes,

Dreadfully venomous to him. She lay

Stone-still, and the long darkness flowed away

With muffled pulses. Then, as midnight makes

Her giant heart of Memory and Tears

Drink the pale drug of silence, and so beat

Sleep's heavy measure, they from head to feet

Were moveless, looking through their dead black years,

By vain regret scrawled over the blank wall.

Like sculptured effigies they might be seen

Upon their marriage-tomb, the sword between;

Each wishing for the sword that severs all.

他由此知道,她醒着的眼在流泪:

只因为他在她头边的手略抖了一下,

奇怪的啜泣,震颤着他们的床榻,

因为突然猛吃一惊就此被她召回,

气吁吁的小蛇一般是令人窒息的沉默,

在他听来更毒得可怕。她一动不动

好似顽石,随着压抑的脉动

长长的黑夜在流逝。当夜半时刻

使她充满回忆和泪的巨大心房

饮下这苍白的沉默苦药,

敲出睡眠的节奏,他们从头到脚

一动不动,望穿了黑色岁月的凋亡,

徒然遗憾地把空墙慢慢地扫遍。

倒也许能看见他们的雕刻肖像

中间隔着剑,在他们婚姻之墓上;

而彼此都希望这剑把一切斩断。【黄杲炘译,有修改】

接下来这首诗描写了一顿令人惊心动魄的晚宴,夫妻双方的干涩对话丝毫无法掩饰爱情已死的事实:

AT dinner she is hostess, I am host.

Went the feast ever cheerfuller? She keeps

The topic over intellectual deeps

In buoyancy afloat. They see no ghost.

With sparkling surface-eyes we ply the ball:

It is in truth a most contagious game;

HIDING THE SKELETON shall be its name.

Such play as this the devils might appall!

But here ’s the greater wonder; in that we,

Enamor’d of our acting and our wits,

Admire each other like true hypocrites.

Warm-lighted glances, Love’s Ephemerae,

Shoot gayly o’er the dishes and the wine.

We waken envy of our happy lot.

Fast, sweet, and golden, shows our marriage-knot.

Dear guests, you now have seen Love’s corpse-light shine!

在晚餐桌上她是女主人,我是客人。

还有哪顿饭吃得更加喜庆?

她将话题在智识深渊的表层圈定,

浮而不沉,他们见不到鬼魂。

我们抛球接球,表层的眼睛闪闪发光:

事实上这是一个感染力最强的游戏;

游戏的名字叫做“将尸骸藏匿”。

这游戏真能把魔鬼吓得发慌!

但是更伟大的奇迹也在此露头;

我们的演技与机智令自己叹为观止,

彼此钦佩对方才是真正的伪君子。

暖光下的一瞥,爱情的蜉蝣,

伴随着觥筹交错,卿卿我我,

我们的幸福令观者嫉妒,

我们的姻缘甜美、珍贵而坚固。

请列位见识一番爱情尸骸的鬼火!


2020-03-25 04:36:50
2020-03-25 04:40:17
4497343 复 4344063
万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`1`25462`185498`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代4

考文垂.帕特摩尔觉得是基督教信仰拯救他脱离了苦境。他在后半生与另一位罗马天主教诗人成为了密友,此人终生未婚,他的作品堪称是英语诗坛最重要的宗教诗歌,足以与亨利.沃恩以及T.S.艾略特相提并论。这位杰拉德.曼利.霍普金斯就像帕特摩尔一样出身于埃塞克斯的一户中产家庭,起初想当画家。他的父亲是一位略有名气的诗人兼记者,全家人都是虔诚的宗教信徒,尽管信得不是天主教而是圣公会。霍普金斯在牛津大学受到了盎格鲁天主教的影响,最终改换门庭并且成为了一名耶稣会神父。他的转变并非个别现象——在十九世纪五六十年代,许多严肃认真的国教会信徒都在红衣主教曼宁的引导下转向了罗马,其中就包括了负责英国议会大厦重建工作的建筑师奥古斯塔斯.普金。

霍普金斯总是具有极端苦行的倾向。根据史料分析,他几乎肯定是个一辈子都没敢出柜的男同,因此才会热切奉行守贞与甘于清贫的天主教誓言,以此缓解内心的折磨。他的诗歌节律犹如一触即发的机簧,每一行诗都具有严格数量的音步。在打头的重读音节之后必定跟着若干模糊的轻读音节,从而模仿正常说话的节律。这种节律在霍普金斯的笔下或者说口中产生了劈头盖脸动摇神智的效果。例如约翰.多恩与乔治.赫伯特这样的早期宗教诗人更关心死亡以及对于死亡的恐惧,而霍普金斯则更像沃恩,对于自然世界充满了喜悦的热情。他是一位欢庆的诗人,而不是悲悼的诗人,尽管就像其他形而上学主义者一样,偶尔他也会遭到自我怀疑与自我厌恶的纠缠。所有这一切都能用来解释为什么他在当代读者当中如此流行。在笔者看来,霍普金斯笔下天主教意味最显著的长诗——例如《德国的残骸》(The Wreck of Deutschland)——也是最难打动人心的作品。但是他的风格绝对与其他任何人都截然不同,具有专属于他本人的声音。或许正是因为如此,他在生前才未能得到更广泛受众的接纳,必须等到英国诗坛步入更激进的时代之后才能真正流行起来。请看《如翠鸟着了火》(As Kingfishers Catch Fire):

As kingfishers catch fire, dragonflies draw flame;

As tumbled over rim in roundy wells

Stones ring; like each tucked string tells, each hung bell's

Bow swung finds tongue to fling out broad its name;

Each mortal thing does one thing and the same:

Deals out that being indoors each one dwells;

Selves — goes itself; myself it speaks and spells,

Crying Whát I do is me: for that I came.

如翠鸟着火,蜻蜓划焰火;

如跌撞上圆井缘,石经鸣;

似每根拨弦之述,每只悬铃

之荡弓找舌头把名字投播;

每名朽物一件相同的事做:

分给出每位居室内的居灵;

自自我——自自己;“我自己”且拼且评,

啭叫“我所做是我:我来而为我”。

I say more: the just man justices;

Keeps grace: thát keeps all his goings graces;

Acts in God's eye what in God's eye he is —

Chríst — for Christ plays in ten thousand places,

Lovely in limbs, and lovely in eyes not his

To the Father through the features of men's faces.

我且讲更多:公正的人公正;

保持慈恩:保持他之所行慈恩;

在神眼中表现他在神眼中的诚——

基督——因基督在万方成真,

对父,通过人的面容特征

可爱在四肢,可爱在双眼,非他之身。【froCt网友译,有修改】

霍普金斯最伟大的成就就是将他对于世间美好的激动喜乐——他的诗句往往会让读者们感到他是一位观察力敏锐的画家——与虔诚的宗教信仰交织在一起,致使两者难解难分。因此即便对于笔者这样并不信教的人们来说,他的诗歌依然具有直指人心的力量。下面举两个例子。在笔者看来这两首短诗是十九世纪最出色的作品。首先是《变化的美》(Pied Beauty):

Glory be to God for dappled things –

For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow;

For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;

Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings;

Landscape plotted and pieced – fold, fallow, and plough;

And all trades, their gear and tackle and trim.

All things counter, original, spare, strange;

Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?)

With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim;

He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change:

Praise him.

赞美主,为他创造的变化的万物

看天空中多彩的云朵如同花斑母牛,

看水塘里游泳的鳟鱼,一身玫瑰红点,

新烤出来的红栗,金雀的翅膀

井井有条的大地,褶皱,整饬,刚被犁过,

各行各业的技艺,工具各不相同

万事万物,原件,备品,等外品,

一切易变的,都变化了(谁知道如何?)

快慢不一,酸甜不定,明暗不常

他的美就在这变化之中:

赞美主吧。【hidingdragon网友译,有修改】

再来一首《上帝荣华无上》(God's Grandeur)

The world is charged with the grandeur of God.

It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;

It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil

Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?

Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;

And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;

And wears man's smudge and shares man's smell: the soil

Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod.

世界彰显着上帝荣华无上,

如震颤的银箔,放射华光;

如榨油渗出,流向伟大的地方。

为什么人类不敬畏他的权杖?

践踏,践踏,践踏,世世代代全都这样;

百工生麻木,苦劳生肮脏,

沾染人类的污浊气息:大地四方

如此贫瘠,脚感觉不到将鞋穿上。

And for all this, nature is never spent;

There lives the dearest freshness deep down things;

And though the last lights off the black West went

Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs —

Because the Holy Ghost over the bent

World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.

尽管如此,自然不会消耗殆尽。

至爱的新奇,深层的东西,永不休止。

即便最后一线光从漆黑的西方散尽,

哦,晨光,在东方褐色的边际升起,

因为那圣灵俯身贴近

这世界,用温暖的胸膛和光明的翎羽。

以上诗文的作者一看就有绘画经验,不是吗?霍普金斯上学时的牛津是思想的温床,每一位智识过剩、情绪激动、争辩成性的年轻人们都忍不住在各个领域走得太远一点。但是在自以为伟大的高傲表象下这帮人全都玩得很开心。比方说有一位教士的儿子查理斯.道奇森,此人在牛津就读的时期与霍普金斯有重叠。尽管他也加入了宗教团体并且终身未婚,但却始终没成为天主教徒。他是一名杰出的数学家,也是摄影领域的先驱人物。今天我们当然更熟悉他的笔名刘易斯.卡罗尔,他的传世名作《爱丽丝漫游仙境》,以及他终其一生对于幼女的仰慕。道奇森年轻时写过很严肃的诗歌,也希望得到严肃对待,但是他的真正天赋却在于创作奇幻文学以及架空世界当中的颠覆性笑话。他为我们留下了许多“胡言诗”,其中最伟大的一首无疑是《炸脖龙》(Jabberwocky)。就像托尔金的中土世界植根于早期英国文学一样,这首诗也在盎撒文化当中稳稳地占据了一席之地:

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

“小心那炸脖竜,我的孩子!

那咬人的牙,那抓人的爪子!

小心那诛布诛布鸟,还躲开

那符命的螌得螚子!”

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought --

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought

他手拿着一把佛盘剑:

他早就要找那个蛮松蟒——

他就躲在一棵屯屯树后面,

就站得那儿心里头想。

And as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

他正在那儿想的个鸟飞飞,

那炸脖竜,两个灯笼的眼,

且秃儿丐林子里夫雷雷

又渤波儿波儿的出来撵。

One, two! One, two! and through and through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

左,右!左,右!透了又透,

那佛盘剑砍得欺哩咔碴!

他割了它喉,他拎了它头,

就一嘎隆儿的飞恩了回家。

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.

“你果然斩了那炸脖竜了吗?

好孩子快来罢,你真比阿灭!

啊,乏比哦的日子啊,喝攸!喝喂!”

他快活的啜个得儿的飞唉。

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

   

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。【赵元任译,有修正】

真是一首文辞奇诡的好诗——不过大概不能让读者忍不住笑意。相比起来,下面这首《威廉师傅你这么老》(You Are Old, Father William)才是笔者本人的长年最爱,因为这首无情颠覆权威的诗歌更有卡罗尔的风格:

"You are old, Father William," the young man said,

"And your hair has become very white;

And yet you incessantly stand on your head—

Do you think, at your age, it is right?"

“威廉师傅你这么老,

你的头发白又白;

倒竖蜻蜒,你这么巧——

你想这样儿该不该?”

"In my youth," Father William replied to his son,

"I feared it might injure the brain;

But now that I'm perfectly sure I have none,

Why, I do it again and again."

先生答道,“我那时小,

怕把脑子跌去来;

现在脑子我没多少,

天天练武随便摔。”

"You are old," said the youth, "as I mentioned before,

And have grown most uncommonly fat;

Yet you turned a back-somersault in at the door—

Pray, what is the reason of that?"

“威廉师傅你这么重,

浑身长得肥又肥;

倒迁筋斗进门洞——

你这身子可危不危?”

"In my youth," said the sage, as he shook his grey locks,

"I kept all my limbs very supple

By the use of this ointment—one shilling the box—

Allow me to sell you a couple."

老头答道,“当年轻,

我就用这个油拌灰;

卖给你只算一先令,

搽了就四肢轻如飞,”

"You are old," said the youth, "and your jaws are too weak

For anything tougher than suet;

Yet you finished the goose, with the bones and the beak—

Pray, how did you manage to do it?"

“威廉师傅你这么弱,

只该喝点稀溜汤;

吃鸡带骨头还叫饿,

这样你胃口伤不伤?”

"In my youth," said his father, "I took to the law,

And argued each case with my wife;

And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw,

Has lasted the rest of my life."

威廉答道,“我做知县,

太太总要来帮我忙;

件件案子要拗着我辩,

所以练得我嘴这么强。”

"You are old," said the youth, "one would hardly suppose

That your eye was as steady as ever;

Yet you balanced an eel on the end of your nose—

What made you so awfully clever?"

“威廉师傅你这么晃,

你的眼睛花不花?

鳝鱼顶在鼻尖儿上,

这样能耐差不差?”

"I have answered three questions, and that is enough,"

Said his father; "don't give yourself airs!

Do you think I can listen all day to such stuff?

Be off, or I'll kick you down stairs!"

师傅怒道,“你还不够?

问了又问想干啥?

谁爱听你这咕叨咒?

滚下楼去你快回家!”【赵元任译,有修正】

笔者认为这首诗对于维多利亚时代精神的体现足以与考文垂.帕特摩尔乃至丁尼生的任何作品相提并论。今天的读者们或许不会将这段文字视为正经诗歌,但是维多利亚时代本来就充斥着各种讽刺文学——爱德华.李尔在画漫画之余撰写的五行打油诗,在家庭内部流传的荒唐诗,店铺与街头售卖的轻松歌谣,尤其还有火爆全国且性意味十足的音乐厅歌词。维多利亚时代英国人的精神风貌确实有一本正经、虔诚信教、注重阶级区分的一面,他们确实因为科学新进展而晕头转向,确实一厢情愿地相信大英帝国天命在身;但是另一方面他们也很爱笑,经常乐不可支。


最后于2020-03-27 05:13:01改,共2次;
2020-03-25 04:40:17
2020-03-27 05:09:38
4498289 复 4344063
万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`1`25462`185498`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代5 3

要说到对于维多利亚时代阅读公众的影响力,十九世纪中期的两大巨头分别是继承了华兹华斯的桂冠诗人头衔的阿尔弗雷德.丁尼生勋爵与罗伯特.勃朗宁。丁尼生首先是一位广受欢迎的奇幻诗歌作者,例如《尤利西斯》(Odysseus)与《夏洛特女士》(The Lady Of Shalott)。此外他的作品还是凸显大英帝国海外扩张大业的官方诗文,完美契合了时代精神的特质。这其中最优秀的一首诗《轻骑兵进击》(The Charge of the Light Brigade)描写了一场既英勇又脑残的军事行动。英国军人具有某种近乎寻死的怪异士气,这种气质将会在几十年后一战期间的巴雪戴尔战役当中达到高峰。不过在十九世纪中期这种气质已经充分成型了:

Half a league, half a league,

Half a league onward,

All in the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

"Forward, the Light Brigade!

"Charge for the guns!" he said:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

半里格,半里格,

往前冲杀半里格,

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

他说,“向炮冲击!”

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

"Forward, the Light Brigade!"

Was there a man dismay'd?

Not tho' the soldier knew

Someone had blunder'd:

Theirs not to make reply,

Theirs not to reason why,

Theirs but to do and die:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

可有人丧气?没有。

尽管士兵们知道

是错误命令。

他们可不能抗命,

他们可无法弄清,

只能奉命去牺牲。

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon in front of them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

Boldly they rode and well,

Into the jaws of Death,

Into the mouth of Hell

Rode the six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们前面,

排炮在轰鸣,

冒着炮火和霰弹,

他们善骑又勇敢。

骑兵六百名

冲进地狱的大门,

冲进死神的牙关。

Flash'd all their sabres bare,

Flash'd as they turn'd in air,

Sabring the gunners there,

Charging an army, while

All the world wonder'd:

Plunged in the battery-smoke

Right thro' the line they broke;

Cossack and Russian

Reel'd from the sabre stroke

Shatter'd and sunder'd.

Then they rode back, but not

Not the six hundred.

出鞘马刀亮晃晃,

挥舞空中闪寒光,

劈下在炮手身上;

向一支大军冲击,

举世都震惊。

他们冲破了防线,

杀进炮台的硝烟;

哥萨克和俄国人

挡不住马刀猛劈,

乱掉了队形。

这时他们往回驰——

不满六百名。

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon behind them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

While horse and hero fell,

They that had fought so well

Came thro' the jaws of Death

Back from the mouth of Hell,

All that was left of them,

Left of six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们后面,

排炮在轰鸣;

在炮火和霰弹下,

战马和英雄倒下。

打得漂亮的他们

冲出死神的牙关;

他们中的生还者,

六百人中的生者

冲出地狱门。

When can their glory fade?

O the wild charge they made!

All the world wondered.

Honor the charge they made,

Honor the Light Brigade,

Noble six hundred.

时间能湮没英名?

哦他们这次狂冲!

举世都震惊。

致敬,向这次冲锋!

致敬,向这六百名

豪迈轻骑兵!【译者不详】

这次军事行动发生在1854年10月,发动冲锋的英军死伤接近三百人,战马损失了超过三百匹。对于维多利亚时代的英国人来说,克里米亚战争的重要性在于暴露了英国在军事方面的无能与组织混乱,此时距离惠灵顿的军队被解散已经过去了一代人时间。就丁尼生而言,他在创作冲突题材的诗歌时更喜欢深入挖掘英国历史。大部分此类诗歌虽说文辞华丽动人,但是却难以帮助度射门理解十九世纪英国人的集体心态,就好像圣潘克拉斯火车站的彩绘砖难以帮助我们了解维多利亚时代的科学进展一样。一般来说,当代读者要想了解丁尼生最具文采的一面,要想了解诗人如何把握住了时代精神,真正该看的是篇幅更长且笔调更黑暗的《悼念组诗》(In Memoriam)。丁尼生在剑桥就读时结交了一位密友阿瑟.亨利.哈拉姆,此人于1833年在维也纳死于中风。接下来丁尼生花了十七年时间来创作这套组诗,在其中反思了生活、爱情、命运以及友谊等多个主题。当年弥尔顿也曾用一首《利西达斯》悼念了剑桥好友亨利.金的去世,并且在诗中超越了个人的悲恸,提出了更广泛的论点。两百多年后,丁尼生的悼亡诗作更加大胆,古典气质更淡,此后再未被超越。这些诗句让人一听就全身发凉:

DARK house, by which once more I stand

Here in the long unlovely street,

Doors, where my heart was used to beat

So quickly, waiting for a hand,

昏暗的屋边我再度站立,

站在这不可爱的长街上;

在这门前,往常我的心脏

为筹待一只手总跳得急。

A hand that can be clasp’d no more—

Behold me, for I cannot sleep,

And like a guilty thing I creep

At earliest morning to the door.

可这只手再也无从紧握--.

瞧我呀,如今已无法入睡,

却像个可怜东面负着罪,

绝早地悄悄溜到这门口。

He is not here; but far away

The noise of life begins again,

And ghastly thro’ the drizzling rain

On the bald street breaks the blank day.

他不在这里;但是听远处,

生活的嘈杂声又在响起,

而透过空街上蒙蒙细雨,

茫茫中露出苍白的初曙。【飞白译】

不过《悼念组诗》包含了多种情绪,丁尼生在另一首诗中劝说自己采取念头通达的坚忍主义来应对人生的损失,这首诗至今依然十分动人,甚至还很有用:

I envy not in any moods

The captive void of noble rage,

The linnet born within the cage,

That never knew the summer woods;

我不妒忌笼中出生的小鸟——

这缺乏高贵怒火的囚徒,

不管它自己是否觉得幸福,

它从未见过夏天森林的奇妙;

In envy not the beast that takes

His license in the field of time,

Unfetter'd by the sense of crime,

To whom a conscience never wakes;

我不妒忌为所欲为的野兽,

它在自己的期限里放纵,

不因犯罪感而约束行动,

也不因良心觉醒而发愁;

Nor, what may count itself as blest,

The heart that never plighted troth

But stagnates in the weeds of sloth:

Nor any want-begotten rest.

我不妒总从未作过盟誓的心,

尽管它可以自诩为幸福,

它只在懒惰的莠草中朽腐,

我不妒忌匮乏造成的安宁。

I hold it true, whate'er befall;

I feel it, when I sorrow most;

'T is better to have loved and lost

than never to have loved at all.

不论何事降临,我确信,

在最悲痛的时刻我觉得:

宁肯爱过而又失却,

也不愿做从未爱过的人。【飞白译】

不过诗人要如何应对基督教在他身边受到的全方位挑战呢?《造物的自然历史的遗迹》这本书今天已经没多少人记得了。但是这本书在1844年匿名出版的时候却引发了一阵轰动,就连阿尔伯特亲王都为维多利亚女王读过这本书。本书作者是苏格兰的一位记者,名叫罗伯特.钱伯斯,他试图在书中证明包括人类在内的一切生命形式都是演化改变的结果,而演化过程可以追溯到太阳系的开端。与达尔文在十四年后出版的《物种起源》相比,本书的论证远没有那么严密可靠,但是的确成为了全英国街头巷尾的谈资。丁尼生也为此赋诗一首,采用大自然的身份开了腔:

“So careful of the type?” but no.

From scarped cliff and quarried stone

She cries, ?A thousand types are gone:

I care for nothing, all shall go.

“难送我关心物种吗?”不!

自然从岩层和化石中叫喊:

“物种已绝灭了千千万万,

我全不在乎,一切都要结束。

“Thou makest thine appeal to me:

I bring to life, I bring to death:

The spirit does but mean the breath:

I know no more.” And he, shall he,

“你向我呼吁,求我仁慈;

我令万物生,我使万物死,

灵魂仅仅意昧着呼吸,

我所知道的仅止于此。”

Man, her last work, who seem’d so fair,

Such splendid purpose in his eyes,

Who roll’d the psalm to wintry skies,

Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer,

难道说,人——她最后最美的作品

眼中闪耀着目标的光芒,

建造起徒然祈祷的庙堂,

把颂歌迭上冰冷的天庭,

Who trusted God was love indeed

And love Creation’s final law —

Tho’ Nature, red in tooth and claw

With ravine, shriek’d against his creed —

他相信上帝与仁爱一体,

相信爱是造物的最终律法,

尽管自然张扬着染血的爪牙,

叫喊着反对他的教义,

Who loved, who suffer’d countless ills,

Who battled for the True, the Just,

Be blown about the desert dust,

Or seal’d within the iron hills?

他曾为真理和正义而斗争,

他爱过,也受过无穷苦难,——

难道他也将随风沙吹散,

或被封存在铁山底层?

No more? A monster then, a dream,

A discord. Dragons of the prime,

That tare each other in their slime,

Were mellow music match’d with him.

从此消灭?这是一场恶梦,

一个不和谐音。原始的巨龙

在泥沼之中互相撕裂,

与此相比也是柔美的音乐!

O life as futile, then, as frail!

O for thy voice to soothe and bless!

What hope of answer, or redress?

Behind the veil, behind the veil.

生命是多么徒劳而脆弱!

啊,但愿你的声音能安慰我!

哪儿能找到回答或补救?

唯有在通过了帷幕之后。【飞白译】

丁尼生的创作生涯很长,而且大半辈子都很出名。维多利亚时代的诗人可以享受到明星一般的待遇,思想深入且行动迅速的文学文化滋养了他们。丁尼生的存在证明了诗歌在十九世纪依然具有影响社会的力量。他的作品极其畅销,每当推出新诗都会引发新一轮讨论与分析热潮。当时的英国人想当然地认为诗人就应该关注重大社会议题,从政治到军事,从宗教到家庭生活全都是合情合理的诗歌题材。在今天的文学界,诗歌遭到五花大绑,塞进了智识生活的贫民窟里。当年的情况则远非如此。

罗伯特.勃朗宁与丁尼生可谓一时瑜亮,两人既是对手也是朋友,此外勃朗宁名声几乎与丁尼生一样显赫。他也是一位性情多变的诗人,最擅长戏剧独白诗。读者们应当将这些独白大声朗读出来,营造出历史人物(往往是意大利人)的声音,从而帮助读者们反思自己的生活。不过另一方面他也能创作十分流行的爱国主义诗歌,例如下面这首《海外乡思》(Oh, to be in England)就是他在自行流放意大利时创作的:

Oh, to be in England

Now that April's there,

And whoever wakes in England

Sees, some morning, unaware,

That the lowest boughs and the brushwood sheaf

Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny leaf,

While the chaffinch sings on the orchard bough

In England - now!!

啊,但愿此刻身在英格兰,

趁这四月天,

一个早晨醒来,

谁都会突然发现:

榆树四周低矮的枝条和灌木丛中,

小小的嫩叶已显出一片葱茏,

听那苍头燕雀正在果园里唱歌,

在英格兰啊,在此刻!

And after April, when May follows,

And the whitethroat builds, and all the swallows!

Hark, where my blossomed pear-tree in the hedge

Leans to the field and scatters on the clover

Blossoms and dewdrops - at the bent spray's edge -

That's the wise thrush; he sings each song twice over,

Lest you should think he never could recapture

The first fine careless rapture!

And though the fields look rough with hoary dew,

All will be gay when noontide wakes anew

The buttercups, the little children's dower

- Far brighter than this gaudy melon-flower!

四月过去,五月接踵来到,

燕子都在衔泥,白喉鸟在筑巢!

我园中倚向篱笆外的梨树,

把如雨的花瓣和露珠

洒满了树枝之下的苜蓿田;

聪明的鸫鸟在那儿唱,把每支歌都唱两遍,

为了免得你猜想:它不可能重新捕捉

第一遍即兴唱出的美妙欢乐!

尽管露水笼罩得田野灰白暗淡,

到中午一切又将喜气盎然,

苏醒的毛茛花是孩子们的嫁妆,

这华而俗的甜瓜花哪儿比得上它灿烂明亮!【飞白译】

勃朗宁最重要的诗作是篇幅宏大的叙事长诗《指环与书》(The Ring and the Book),题材是十七世纪发生在意大利的一起著名谋杀案。不过今天的大多数读者都更喜欢更短小的勃朗宁独白,因为这些诗歌的感染力简直就像揪住了读者的领口那样迫切。以下是《布劳拉姆主教的辩护词》(Bishop Bloughram's Apology)的开头:

No more wine? Then we'll push back chairs and talk.

A final glass for me, tho'; cool, i'faith!

We ought to have our Abbey back, you see.

It's different, preaching in basilicas,

And doing duty in some masterpiece

Like this of brother Pugin's, bless his heart!

I doubt if they're half baked, those chalk rosettes,

Ciphers and stucco-twiddlings everywhere;

It's just like breathing in a lime-kiln: eh?

These hot long ceremonies of our church

Cost us a little--oh, they pay the price,

You take me-amply pay it! Now, we'll talk.

没有酒了?那咱们推开椅子聊聊。

不过我还得再来最后一杯;哈,这是信仰!

我们得把我们的教堂夺回来,你看,

这感觉就是不一样,在大教堂里布道,

在建筑杰作当中做工。

且看普金兄弟的这座教堂,愿他的心蒙恩!

可没有偷工减料之处,那白垩的玫瑰花窗,

满墙灰泥拧着旋,花纹好像密码。

我们的教堂里法事漫长而又炎热,

好像在石灰窑里喘气一般

我们可是真够受的——嗨,他们可是遭了罪了,

你听我说——可是遭得不轻!行了,说正事。


通宝推:ccceee,
2020-03-27 05:09:38
4498309 复 4495151
燕人
橄榄球起源于拉格比城 4

球以城名。


通宝推:桥上,
2020-03-27 05:59:09
4498324 复 4498309
桥上
谢了,和那个拉格比公学有关吗?

2020-03-27 07:16:12
2020-03-27 07:31:57
4498336 复 4498324
燕人
燕人`8681`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`15541`16875`186328`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2005-10-26 12:46:38`
传说是该校一个学生首创 4

1823年间的事情。己方球队屡次失分,该生情急之下,一手把球抱起,快速冲向对方大门。对方球员上前拦截云云。没有确实的文字记录。估计现场有点小热闹。这基本成为默认事实。橄榄球世界杯奖杯就以此人名字William Webb Ellis命名。

说实话,这种不伤大雅的反规矩举动在一个贵族学校发生是理所必然的吧。


通宝推:桥上,
2020-03-27 07:31:57
44987664344336 待认可未通过。偏要看 耗株钱:1 2020-03-28 04:59:19
2020-05-17 22:23:47
4520170 复 4344063
万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`1`25462`185498`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代6 1

在勃朗宁之后,许多后来的诗人也效仿他的先例玩起了高端腹语术——埃兹拉.庞德就是个好例子——但是勃朗宁的名声也伴随着沉重的代价,具体来说就是他那位兴许比他更有才华的妻子伊丽莎白.巴雷特完全被他掩盖了下去。伊丽莎白于1806年出生在杜伦,她家颇有资财,家中产业包括农场、牙买加的甘蔗种植园以及几座磨坊。伊丽莎白具有强烈的道德观与异见宗教观,她的做人立场与她父亲的财富来源之间的紧张关系贯穿了她的一生。成人之后她成为了废止奴隶贸易的主要倡导者之一,大力主张要针对雇佣童工的工厂施加人道限制。尽管她毕生疾病缠身——几乎可以肯定是肺结核——但是在从事社会活动之余她依然创作了一大批诗歌。她的作品如此脍炙人口,以至于当初丁尼生成为桂冠诗人时很多人都认为她也有资格争一争这一头衔。她秘密地嫁给了勃朗宁,激怒了她的家庭,以至于他们与她断绝了关系。随后勃朗宁夫妇迁往意大利,她本人则于1861年在佛罗伦萨逝世。伊丽莎白从年轻时就主张女性权益,也是玛莉.渥斯顿克雷福特的热心读者。她的著名诗作《沃尔特勋爵的妻子》(Lord Walter’s Wife)彰显了真正的维多利亚人与不谙房事的古板形象之间差距多么大,在性关系当中女性甘愿被动的迷思与男性口是心非的真相被高明的诗人扎了个前所未有的透心凉:

'But where do you go?' said the lady, while both sat under the yew,

And her eyes were alive in their depth, as the kraken beneath the sea-blue.

“但你为什么要走?”女士问道,两人正坐在红豆杉下休憩,

她的双眼暗流汹涌,恰似庞然海兽正在碧波深处游弋。

'Because I fear you,' he answered; - 'because you are far too fair,

And able to strangle my soul in a mesh of your gold-coloured hair.'

“因为我害怕你,”男士答道,“因为你过于美丽,

你的满头金发如同网罗,足以将我的灵魂勒毙。”

'Oh that,' she said, 'is no reason! Such knots are quickly undone,

And too much beauty, I reckon, is nothing but too much sun.'

“哦这个啊,”她说,“这不算事!轻轻一拽满头发髻都会披散,

而且我觉得美貌不可能过分,恰如阳光不可能过于和煦温暖。”

'Yet farewell so,' he answered; - 'the sunstroke's fatal at times.

I value your husband, Lord Walter, whose gallop rings still from the limes.

“话不能这么说,”他答道;“多少人都死于暴晒中暑。

我很尊敬您的丈夫沃尔特勋爵,石板路上他的马蹄声脆清清楚楚。”

'Oh that,' she said, 'is no reason.You smell a rose through a fence:

If two should smell it what matter? who grumbles, and where's the pretense?

“哦他呀,”她说,“那又不碍事。隔着篱笆也能轻嗅玫瑰芬芳:

两人共赏一朵花有什么要紧?何必板着面孔嘟嘟囔囔?”

'But I,' he replied, 'have promised another, when love was free,

To love her alone, alone, who alone from afar loves me.'

“但是我,”他答道,“早已心有所属,舍弃了恋爱的自由,

我只会爱她一个,她心里也别无所求。”

'Why, that,' she said, 'is no reason. Love's always free I am told.

Will you vow to be safe from the headache on Tuesday, and think it will hold?

“你这是何苦,”她说,“实在没必要。我听说爱情就该无拘无束。

你要是发誓周二当天不能头疼,莫非就一定能将誓言守住?”

'But you,' he replied, 'have a daughter, a young child, who was laid

In your lap to be pure; so I leave you: the angels would make me afraid."

“但是你,”他答道,“还有个女儿,年幼的孩子,躺在你的怀里

多么纯洁,所以请容我告退,我真不敢触犯天使。”

'Oh that,' she said, 'is no reason. The angels keep out of the way;

And Dora, the child, observes nothing, although you should please me and stay.'

“哦你说她呀,”她说,“别往心里去,天使不会将我们搅扰;

朵拉还小不懂人事,不过我看你倒是应该懂得不少。”

At which he rose up in his anger, - 'Why now, you no longer are fair!

Why, now, you no longer are fatal, but ugly and hateful, I swear.'

他愤怒地陡然起身——“住口!你已经不再美丽!

我发誓你已经不再动人心魄,而是丑陋得充满恨意!”

At which she laughed out in her scorn: 'These men! Oh these men overnice,

Who are shocked if a colour not virtuous is frankly put on by a vice.'

她轻蔑地大笑道:“呵呵,男人!你们这些假殷勤当真可乐,

罪孽若是没有披上美德的伪装,就吓得你们手足无措。”

Her eyes blazed upon him - 'And you! You bring us your vices so near

That we smell them! You think in our presence a thought 'twould defame us to hear!

她眼神灼灼盯着他——“还有你!带着一身恶行接近我们,

真是恶臭不堪!眼下你心里的念头不知有多么恶心人!”

'What reason had you, and what right, - I appeal to your soul from my life, -

To find me so fair as a woman? Why, sir, I am pure, and a wife.

“我凭着性命发问,请你以灵魂作答——你有什么理由,依仗什么权利,

夸奖我是个美女?这位先生,我可是良家女子,还是他人的妻室。”

'Is the day-star too fair up above you? It burns you not. Dare you imply

I brushed you more close than the star does, when Walter had set me as high?

“高悬的金星是否也过于美丽?星光并不会将你灼伤。你竟敢以为

在沃尔特心中与星辰相当的我,比星辰更乐意与你厮混?你以为你是谁?”

'If a man finds a woman too fair, he means simply adapted too much

To use unlawful and fatal. The praise! shall I thank you for such?

“男人要是觉得女人过于美丽,他不过意味着她太过容易

遭到非法致命手段的侵害。好一句夸奖!我莫非还得谢谢你?”

'Too fair? not unless you misuse us! and surely if, once in a while,

You attain to it, straightaway you call us no longer too fair, but too vile.

“过于美丽?除非你错待我们!当然,偶尔你兴许也能得手,

然后就会立刻翻脸,之前夸我们多美,之后就骂我们多丑。”

'A moment, I pray your attention! I have a poor word in my head

I must utter, though womanly custom would set it down better unsaid.

“先等等,请你再多听片刻!有几句粗鄙之语我一定要讲,

尽管身为女性,礼数要求我应该只在心里想一想。”

'You grew, sir, pale to impertinence, once when I showed you a ring.

You kissed my fan when I dropped it. No matter! I've broken the thing.

“当初我向你展示婚戒,你的脸色冒然变得煞白,褪去了每一丝血气。

你捡起我掉落的扇子,还要先亲一口。哈!那不过是我玩坏的玩意!”

'You did me the honour, perhaps, to be moved at my side now and then

In the senses, a vice, I have heard, which is common to beasts and some men.

“或许你还真看得起我,有事没事就爱在我身边逡巡,

你这个毛病,据我所知,常见于畜生野兽与一部分男人。”

'Love's a virtue for heroes! as white as the snow on high hills,

And immortal as every great soul is that struggles, endures, and fulfils.

“爱情是英雄的美德!恰似高山巅峰的积雪洁白,

如同每一个伟大的灵魂同样不朽,正是那斗争,忍耐,满溢胸怀。”

'I love my Walter profoundly, you, Maude, though you faltered a week,

For the sake of . . . what is it, an eyebrow? or, less still, a mole on the cheek?

“我深爱我的沃尔特,至于你,毛德,我看你只会三心二意,

就为了……那什么,一道眼眉?甚至仅仅为了面颊上一颗美人痣?”

'And since, when all's said, you're too noble to stoop to the frivolous cant

About crimes irresistable, virtues that swindle, betray and supplant.

“话说至此,你过于高贵,不屑于说那些空话轻佻好似儿戏,

什么克制不住的犯罪,所谓美德无非是欺骗、背叛、始乱终弃。”

'I determined to prove to yourself that, whate'er you might dream or avow

By illusion, you wanted precisely no more of me than you have now.

“我决心向你证明,无论你做过什么梦,或者因为鬼迷心窍

发过什么誓:你满心盘算不多不少,无非眼馋我的容貌。”

'There! Look me full in the face! in the face. Understand, if you can,

That the eyes of such women as I am are clean as the palm of a man.

“很好!那就仔细端详我的脸!不管你信或不信,

我这样一位女人的双眼就像正人君子的双手一样干净。”

'Drop his hand, you insult him. Avoid us for fear we should cost you a scar,

You take us for harlots, I tell you, and not for the women we are.

“别握他的手,你这是侮辱他。今后离我们远点,否则我们非得给你留一道疤痕。

我看你只会拿我们当娼妓,而不会将我们视为本来面目的女人。”

'You wronged me: but then I considered . . . there's Walter! And so at the end

I vowed that he should not be mulcted, by me, in the hand of a friend.

“你错待了我,不过我转念一想——啊,沃尔特过来了!那咱们姑且算完,

因为我曾发誓,不会让他为了我在哪位朋友面前为难。”

'Have I hurt you indeed? We are quits then. Nay, friend of my Walter, be mine!

Come, Dora, my darling, my angel, and help me to ask him to dine.'……

“我这人说话比较直,你可别往心里去。沃尔特的朋友我都不会怠慢。

朵拉宝贝,乖,赶紧过来,帮妈妈问问这位叔叔来不来咱家吃饭?”

笔者认为这首诗精彩地描绘了一位棱角分明的杰出女性,满头金色卷发,两眼灼灼放光。作为一名废奴运动家,伊丽莎白很清楚英国国内的政治问题。她的《国家的诅咒》(A Curse For A Nation)一诗以抨击美国奴隶制为题。一名天使呼吁她去诅咒美国,但她却首先与天使争辩起来。英国的政治文化早已腐败不堪,她这个英国人哪还有资格朝着大西洋彼岸指指点点呢?

I heard an angel speak last night,

And he said 'Write!

Write a Nation's curse for me,

And send it over the Western Sea.'

昨夜听得天使说,

有件事情要我做,

写下针对一个国家的咒怨,

而后寄到大西洋的彼岸。

I faltered, taking up the word:

'Not so, my lord!

If curses must be, choose another

To send thy curse against my brother.

我满怀敬畏,声音颤抖地道出心曲:

“不要如此,我的上帝!

请另选他人吧,假如诅咒是必须,

让他把对我兄弟的诅咒寄给你。”

'For I am bound by gratitude,

By love and blood,

To brothers of mine across the sea,

Who stretch out kindly hands to me.'

“我内心充满感激,

还有爱和血缘的关系。

兄弟们虽与我隔海相望,

却曾伸出援助之手帮忙。”

'Therefore,' the voice said, 'shalt thou write

My curse to-night.

From the summits of love a curse is driven,

As lightning is from the tops of heaven.'

“那么,”这个声音说。

“今夜可否将诅咒创作?

诅咒源自爱之巅峰,

恰似道道霹雳闪出天宫。”

'Not so,' I answered. 'Evermore

My heart is sore

For my own land's sins: for little feet

Of children bleeding along the street:

“不要如此,”我回答道,

“痛苦正在我心中缠绕。

我的祖国罪孽深重,赤足的孩子

在街头巷尾血流不止。”

'For parked-up honors that gainsay

The right of way:

For almsgiving through a door that is

Not open enough for two friends to kiss:

“荣誉、声望齐集一身,

阻断往来令人愤恨。

一道细小的门缝,不肯痛快敞开

朋友对面不能相吻,只能将施舍递出来。”

'For love of freedom which abates

Beyond the Straits:

For patriot virtue starved to vice on

Self-praise, self-interest, and suspicion:

“对于自由的热爱一旦

越过海峡就踪迹不见。*

因为爱国者的美德因为饥渴而堕落,

沦为了自诩、利己与怀疑的罪恶。”

*【即直布罗陀海峡,英国在海峡对面的非洲有多处殖民地。】

'For an oligarchic parliament,

And bribes well-meant.

What curse to another land assign,

When heavy-souled for the sins of mine?'

“我们独裁的贵族政府,

善意的贿赂丑闻层出。

此时又有何颜面对别人诅咒,

眼看自己的罪恶使灵魂内疚?”

'Therefore,' the voice said, 'shalt thou write

My curse to-night.

Because thou hast strength to see and hate

A foul thing done within thy gate.'

“那么,”这个声音说。

“今夜可否将诅咒创作?

因为你敢于正视与憎恨一切恶行,

甘愿将家丑诉诸外人。”

'Not so,' I answered once again.

'To curse, choose men.

For I, a woman, have only known

How the heart melts and the tears run down.'

“不要如此,”我再次重申,

“要诅咒,去找男人。

因为我,一个女子,仅仅知晓,

心如何溶化,泪水怎样淹没微笑。”

'Therefore,' the voice said, 'shalt thou write

My curse to-night.

Some women weep and curse, I say

(And no one marvels), night and day.

“那么,”这个声音说。

“今夜可否将诅咒创作?

一些女人边诅咒边哭泣,

从夜晚到天明也无人惊奇。”

'And thou shalt take their part to-night,

Weep and write.

A curse from the depths of womanhood

Is very salt, and bitter, and good.'

“今夜你要扮演她们的角色,

哭泣并写作。

因为诅咒若是出自女人心底,

必然万分尖刻而又严厉。”

So thus I wrote, and mourned indeed,

What all may read.

And thus, as was enjoined on me,

I send it over the Western Sea.

于是我写下了诸位读到的笔记,

心中着实哀痛不已。

于是按照所吩咐的那样,

将它寄过了大西洋

这还是诗人为美国辩护时的表现。等到针对美国的诅咒全力发动之后,诗人的词锋就更加凶狠了:

The Curse

诅咒

Because ye have broken your own chain

With the strain

Of brave men climbing a Nation's height,

Yet thence bear down with brand and thong

On souls of others, -- for this wrong

This is the curse. Write.

因为你打碎了身上的枷锁,

以勇士的力量和气魄,

建立了属于自己的家国。

然而你却从此举起烙铁和皮鞭,

把别人的灵魂践踏、霸占。

这就是诅咒,写下这凶残。

Because yourselves are standing straight

In the state

Of Freedom's foremost acolyte,

Yet keep calm footing all the time

On writhing bond-slaves, -- for this crime

This is the curse. Write.

因为你扬眉吐气,

生活在属于自己的国土里,

自称是自由的头号徒弟。

然而你却如此心安理得,

长久立足于奴隶遭受的折磨。

这就是诅咒,写下这罪恶。

Because ye prosper in God's name,

With a claim

To honor in the old world's sight,

Yet do the fiend's work perfectly

In strangling martyrs, -- for this lie

This is the curse. Write.

因为你以上帝的名义富强繁荣,

于是便索要尊重,

来自旧世界的目光中。

然而你却将魔鬼的工作完美进行下去,

将无数殉道者活活勒毙。

这便是诅咒,写下这扯谎的语句。

Ye shall watch while kings conspire

Round the people's smouldering fire,

And, warm for your part,

Shall never dare -- O shame!

To utter the thought into flame

Which burns at your heart.

This is the curse. Write.

你远观诸国王相聚共谋,

民众怒火积郁,嫉恶如仇,

尽管你自己不必担心取暖——

耻辱啊!——却从来不敢

让思想的火种燃成烈焰,

哪怕它常常灼痛你的心田。

这就是诅咒,写下这无耻的嘴脸。

Ye shall watch while nations strive

With the bloodhounds, die or survive,

Drop faint from their jaws,

Or throttle them backward to death;

And only under your breath

Shall favor the cause.

This is the curse. Write.

你只远观众民族联合抗争,

与恶犬较量,全不顾生存或牺牲。

也许力竭昏厥倒在狗嘴下,

或者英勇搏击把恶犬绞杀。

然而你却从不敢将心声表白,

只会低声道出对正义的热爱。

这就是诅咒,将这份胆怯写下来。

Ye shall watch while strong men draw

The nets of feudal law

To strangle the weak;

And, counting the sin for a sin,

Your soul shall be sadder within

Than the word ye shall speak.

This is the curse. Write.

你只远观强者挥舞臂膀,

布下一张张封建的罗网,

将弱者窒息,使其命丧。

历数罪恶之罪恶,

灵魂经受的震慑

比你能述说的更多。

这就是诅咒,写下来,请记着。

When good men are praying erect

That Christ may avenge His elect

And deliver the earth,

The prayer in your ears, said low,

Shall sound like the tramp of a foe

That's driving you forth.

This is the curse. Write.

善良的人们向苍天祈祷。

请求基督为他的选民报仇,

将罪孽深重的人世间拯救。

祈祷声低低回荡耳畔,

有如敌人沉重的脚步来犯,

催你出发,驱你向前。

这就是诅咒,写下来,正如刚才那般。

When wise men give you their praise,

They shall praise in the heat of the phrase,

As if carried too far.

When ye boast your own charters kept true,

Ye shall blush; for the thing which ye do

Derides what ye are.

This is the curse. Write.

当智者对你不吝赞扬,

就在唇枪舌剑的火热现场,

或许其实是大言无当。

当你自夸严守了本国的宪章,

你一定会脸红,因为你的行为远非高尚,

你的本性罪恶昭彰。

这就是诅咒,写下来,无需粉饰和伪装。

When fools cast taunts at your gate,

Your scorn ye shall somewhat abate

As ye look o'er the wall;

For your conscience, tradition, and name

Explode with a deadlier blame

Than the worst of them all.

This is the curse. Write.

当愚者在门前大肆讥嘲,

你的轻蔑将会逐渐减少,

当你望断高墙,展望明朝。

因为你的良知、传统和名誉,

已经崩溃瓦解,随风逝去,

这致命责难都是你咎由自取。

这就是诅咒,写下来,我还要继续。

Go, wherever ill deeds shall be done,

Go, plant your flag in the sun

Beside the ill-doers!

And recoil from clenching the curse

Of God's witnessing Universe

With a curse of yours.

This is the curse. Write.

去吧,无论你在何处多行不义,

去吧,在阳光下插下你的旗帜,

在作恶者身边树立。

然而你却不敢正视这诅咒,

来自上帝主宰的四海五洲,

它只属你所有。

写下吧,这就是诅咒。【袁芳远、张清福、张玉平、董莉译,有修改】

这首源自一位激进异见者的诗歌着实看得人心惊肉跳,将残忍而不自觉的十九世纪中期维多利亚时代生活方式骂了个体无完肤。今天的读者们一想到伊丽莎白.巴雷特.勃朗宁,首先想到的往往是她那些优美动人的爱情诗歌。她的本事可绝不仅仅只有这么一点。


通宝推:桥上,
2020-05-17 22:23:47
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